Here is a brief video prepared by NASA Goddard explaining what geodesy is and how it came to be. The use of the principles of geodesy paved the way for all the positioning technology that we enjoy today.
....the survey by any means, including photogrammetric, electronic or astronomic methods, of land, water or air space for the purpose of preparing maps, plans and documents connected in any way with the establishment or determination of boundaries delineating any right or interest in land, water or air space (Alberta Land Surveyors' Act).
In Alberta, the practice of land surveying is exclusive to licensed professional land surveyors and or his or her representatives or employees provided that they are under the employ and direct supervision and management of the professional. This is provided for under the Alberta Land Surveyors Act.
Just like you wouldn't trust your health to a non-health worker nor expect a non-engineer to certify the structural integrity of a bridge, professional surveyors are experts when it comes to land, land management and positioning. Land surveyors follow strict guidelines, regulations and standards set out by the Alberta Land Surveyors' Association (ALSA) to ensure that the public's interests are well protected.